References | Bibliography | Inventory | App. A, B, C, D
A. Selection of material
The researcher made inquiries of former members of Hubbard organizations as to which Hubbard policies applied media and public relations. The reply by Arnaldo P. Lerma, a former member of Hubbard's Sea Organization, was typical and was also the most comprehensive of the responses obtained. He suggested material described as follows:
Div 6 OEC pack
and a Management Series [...]
and a copy of some OSA network orders
and a copy of Henning Heldt's Hat pack
The researcher obtained access to copies of the:
(Henning Heldt's) Guardian Office hat pack,
OEC 7 (Management) volume,
OEC 6 (Distribution) volume,
and a wide assortment of various Hubbard policies and bulletins
B. Validity of Documents
The primary body of documents examined in this case study are from Lafayette Ronald Hubbard's published and unpublished works or from those who worked under his authority. Policies relevant to public relations and the media were found in: the United States Guardian Office Information Full Hat, Hubbard's Organization Executive Course Division 7, Hubbard's Organization Executive Course Division 6, and general policies and writings published for the paying public.
These documents, which are from primary sources, also contain a limited amount material of a secondary nature. Those are items that were probably not written by Hubbard personally, but that were released, either by his direction or under his authority, by those who followed his policies and wanted others to do likewise.
United States Guardian Office Information Full Hat
A collection of Hubbard's management level public relations and media material can be found in a training packet called the "United States Guardian Office Information Full Hat" pack. The pack examined was marked "Government exhibit number 236 of the US District Court for the District of Columbia.". A "hat pack" is a collection of information staff members are expected to use in performing assigned functions. This particular pack of training material reportedly belonged to Henning Heldt 20. Heldt was Deputy Guardian for the United States (DG US). He supervised all Hubbard's Guardian Offices in the United States from approximately November 21, 1973 to June 20, 1977. 21 His term ended about the time of the FBI raid on the Guardian Offices in Los Angeles and Washington, D.C. on July 7, 1977. 22 A result of that raid was that Heldt's training material became public.
While there is no question of the validity of Heldt's "Full Hat" at the time it was seized, there is discussion about whether the policies in it are still valid today. In 1994, David Miscavige, whose position is "at the very top of the Scientology hierarchy" 23, argued that the Guardian Office (GO) was separate from the Church of Scientology:
During the 1970s the GO operated as an entirely autonomous organization unchecked and unsupervised by the ecclesiastical management of the Church. The power of the GO was absolute. Unless a member of the GO, one could not even enter their locked offices. They held all corporate directorships. They and they alone dealt with legal affairs of the Church. The GO operated in complete secrecy, and conducted its affairs independently of the Church and its management and personnel 24.
Various organizations under Hubbard's control had been effectively compartmented off from each other. While this may give an external impression of legal autonomy of the individual organizations, a case has been made through the years, with some effect, that Hubbard's organizations were all part of one central hierarchy 23. One example used in this argument was that the "command channels" of Scientology pertain to all Scientology organizations, not just to the churches. Another example of a central tendency of Hubbard's organizations lies in the ownership of the word, "Scientology." L. Ron Hubbard held the rights to the word "Scientology" up to May 16, 1982. At that point, rights were transferred to the Religious Technology Center, under control of David Miscavige. 25 History is replete with evidence that the Scientology hierarchy has been aggressive in guarding the use of its rights to that word. In that sense the power of the GO was absolute, as stated above, but only to the extent that L. Ron Hubbard's power was absolute, either in the churches or other organizations.
In his argument to distance the past crimes of the Guardian Office (GO) from Scientology, Miscavige also made a statement which directly affects some of the material taken under consideration in this case study:
To further ensure that the old GO influence was completely terminated, all "Guardian Orders," the non-standard issues which GO staff followed instead of Mr. Hubbard's policies, were canceled. These numbered in the thousands.
There is no doubt that Miscavige had all Guardian Orders canceled, and that those orders numbered in the thousands. However, virtually all Guardian Office policies of significance were written by Hubbard himself and, according to a high-level Scientology group called the Watchdog Committee for the Church of Scientology International, Hubbard's statements cannot be canceled 26.
Organization Executive Course Division 6 and 7
The Organization Executive Course, by L. Ron Hubbard, was written for professionals who apply Hubbard's management philosophy. Division 6 was meant for use by the Distribution divisions and Division 7 for the Executive Division. Material was selected which addresses media and public relations. The volumes studied have copyright dates from 1954 to 1974.
Various policies and writings by L. Ron Hubbard
Hubbard wrote many books and policies for the general public, many of which mention Hubbard's views of the press. A limited amount of material was selected which addressed key aspects of media and public relations covered under the first three sources.
The researcher scanned through the three volumes of the Guardian Office hat pack to get an overall view of contents, paying special attention for words: "press, newspaper, public relations, information." Matching items were noted for further inspection. After the three packs were scanned, list of noted items was used to return to items marked for further inspection and contents were evaluated with regard to case study questions. For instance, Hubbard's relationship between public relations and intelligence related directly to "Who originated the communication?" According to Hubbard, the source of the communication is known in public relations, but unknown in intelligence operations. The contents of the hat pack were described and citations included that potentially answered case study questions.
The researcher next scanned for "press, newspaper, public relations, information" in the OEC volumes, selecting items that matched search terms. Typically, that halved the total number of items searched. After that, the items were visually inspected to see if mention of search items was only coincidental, i.e., part of a different topic altogether, or if the discussion matched search terms. Because Hubbard used the sales policies of Les Dane, sales policies were not included. Items for which discussion matched search terms and individual mentions of search terms for samples were retained. Typically, that again halved the number of items.
The researcher then went through selected items, describing contents and including citations that potentially answered case study questions. The researcher did not exclude policies that did not include the search terms. For instance, although item 104 of the inventory "The Supreme Test," does not directly address media policy, it nevertheless helps to answer research question 5, "Under what circumstances is the communication valid/not valid?" There were also nine bulletins selected for their connection to documents from the above three collections.
D. Analysis and Strategy
The data turned out to already be loosely organized according to function. The Guardian Office hat pack is an instruction manual for staff of the central management group. OEC volume 7 is an instruction manual for local managers of a client organization. OEC volume 6 is an instruction manual for local publicity people, whose channels will be used by staff of the central management group.
In addition to describing a series of policies, the researcher also performed a basic system analysis from the items examined. For purposes of this study, the basic system components consisted of: channels, data, processes and points of contact. The descriptions were examined with respect to which of these four system components were potentially being fulfilled. Definitions used for system components were as follows. A channel was considered a method by which data flows. Data were the images that flowed on channels. Processes were actions performed with the data. Points of contact were terminals to or from whom data flowed on channels.
E. Application of procedure
The researcher briefly scanned each policy description to obtain a small number of system components from each. Many similar components were already grouped by virtue of the fact that they were taken from instruction manuals that were already loosely organized. The researcher then arranged the components of the system matrix into paragraphs.
G. System Analysis of Items Examined (see Inventory of Items Examined)
System Matrix used for Analysis 1. Channels Incoming Outgoing Internal open open open covert covert covert 2. Data Incoming Outgoing Internal open open open covert covert covert 3. Processing / Evaluation open ("affluence," public relations) covert ("danger," intelligence operations) 4. Points of Contact open covert
The channels upon which data can flow into a Hubbard press and public relations system can be divided into two categories: open and covert.
The open channels include: newspapers (3)(58)(59)(60), information collection (3), information services (3), letters to Hubbard (9), public divisions (132)(139), survey units (149)(150), and "entheta" (enemy) books (49).
In addition to what can be obtained through open channels, the covert channels include: intelligence (4)(6)(10)(63), investigations (4), Public Investigation Section (9), private investigators (30), case histories collection (9)(28)(63), action committees (28), cover appearances, impersonation (147), a "suitable guise" (9) and security checks (176).
Internal channels include: weekly reports (51)(52)(53)(54)(55)(56)(63), which may include excerpts from media (55)(56). Official media clippings are posted in a clippings book (58)(59)(60)(115)(125)(174).
The channels upon which data can flow out of a Hubbard press and public relations system can also be divided into the categories of open and covert.
The open channels include: books (131), control of all mass media (134), community relations (134), mass advertising (134)(168), info packs (134), promotion (3), public relations (4)(9)(131), news releases news as many channels as possible (121), human rights (4), sales (4), social reform (4) and rehabilitation (4).
Covert channels include a means whereby data is obscured (5)(57)(70). Methods of obscuration, besides cryptography, include word substitution (5)(57) and transposition (57). Methods of communicating a message without stating in words what the message is includes leading by repetition (8)(121) and leading by example (169). Methods of defining the channels by limiting outward communication (140)(169)(170) include: having one person in charge of press relations (117), preparing material for press in advance (170), not having an interest in the general public knowing methodology (169), and a rule of thumb to not be interviewed by press (169).
Covert channels dealing with an enemy include exposing attackers with lurid publicity (9)(63)(109)(118)(169), prosecuting enemies (63), obtaining convictions by state agencies (9), feeding actual evidence of crimes to media (9), hidden source books (2)(19)(33), hidden source telex (15), denial of authorship (38)(44).
Open internal channels include: published findings (3), check sheets (1)(3) and drills and exercises (116).
Controlled internal channels include: files (64)(67)(69)(83), CIC (Combat Information Center) (6)(64), cross-filing (6)(61)(62)(63). The files are perceived as organizational memory (64). File categories (67) include:
1) Doubt - Scientologists (possible traitors)
2) Traitor - Scientologists
3) Enemy - non-Scientologists
4) General Area - psychiatry, crime, etc
5) General International - banking, press, intelligence
6) Enemy International
a) Branch 1 reports (Information operations. See inventory item 4.)
b) Branch 2 reports (Information handling)
8. Newspaper Files
2. Data - Images
Images of success included "[a]lliances with suitable groups and leaders, with due regard to local 'ethnic' values. (Publicly admired values.)" (146) A heavily used image was that of identity of self with "Truth" (8)(20)(23)(48)(114)(137). One of the keys to this was to ensure that one's own truth was documented (48)(159).
Other positive images of success included: power (3)(89)(91)(109), total control (37), victory (9)(6)(27) and a technology that worked (29)(74)(89).
It was important to Hubbard to establish indispensability of self (8)(9) and to be invulnerable through rightness (24)(29)(36). He saw no need to have oneself put on trial (25), nor did he see a need to ask for cooperation (152). The fact of survival was proof of "goodness" (146)
Hubbard valued a highly acceptable image (134). His policy was to be publicly popular (134) and to have a good appearance (145). This would help to gain PR area control (134).
Positive images include having a valid purpose (104) and a purer intent (169). That would mean his organization would have no secrets (169), would be sincere (146) and maintain an "ethics presence" (an air that makes people listen) (107).
Positive goals included cleaning up mental health (120), guiding the government (132), providing political guidance (36), and taking responsibility for the West (40). In doing this, the policy was to use the politics of freedom (20)(111)(112) and to have one's own codes of justice (40).
In order to demonstrate that it was a group to be reckoned with, the client organization would emphasize that the organization was expanding (10)(11). Other advantages at various points in time were that the customer had military and defense value (33), could raise IQ (33)(152), and could undo brainwashing (33).
To sum up, the group was to think of itself as the good guys in white hats (36) who were convinced that "the planet belongs to us" (36). While doing this, it was important to have "clean hands" (120), to be competent (120)(134)(152), and to know how to know answers (169).
Open response to criticism
Images produced in response to criticism included rolling out the "big guns" (35) and counter-attacking (36)(109)(169). In doing so, one tactic could be to accuse the target of what one has been accused (30)(31). In doing these counter-attacks, it was important to correct misconceptions (20) and to be honest (18).
Images to be brought up in the event of attack included association of self as "church" (17), identity of self as "religious" (18)(112)(123), associations with Buddhism (20), theosophy (20) and St. Thomas Aquinas (18).
If Hubbard himself was targeted, it was to be made known that Hubbard was independently wealthy (20)(126) and that Scientology was grateful to Hubbard (20). Hubbard was to be seen as a writer, a philosopher and a savior (23).
In presumed response to mistreatment of retarded children, Hubbard emphasized that the organization did not accept the sick or insane (31). In response to the use of the words "Fair Game" when dealing with the enemy, Hubbard said those two words should be avoided, as their use caused "bad public relations" (93). In response to press reports that his practices were not acceptable, Hubbard wrote that those reports were taken from books and papers, and that books and papers are not practices (124).
Self-image in regards to enemy
Corresponding to the self-image of success above, the image of failure was to be used for the "[e]radication of enemies on public lines with due regard to local ethnic values (publicly detested values)" (144). Along this line, a pledge was made in according with "Article 4 of the Code," "I pledge myself to punish to the fullest extent of my power anyone misusing or degrading Scientology to harmful ends." (169).
At management level, the above action was to be thought of as a "war" in the figurative sense of the word (9)(41)(72)(94). Its purpose was to "destroy the enemy" (6) by costing him his job (169) and having him face "personal ruin" (33). The enemies were the "bad guys in black hats" (36).
Concepts adapted from the idea of war included: isolating the attackers (33), sweeping aside the opposition (7), and removing the attackers (9)(10)(11)(50)(134). This would "give the enemy a more amenable frame of mind" (9). In doing this, there was "no need for illegality" (9)(112) and one's own failure could be looked upon as a calculated risk (29).
At various times, the enemy was assigned various characteristics. At one point Hubbard said the enemy, which had been responsible for the previous 18 years of "press attacks" and "public upset", had consisted of one group -- the World Federation of Mental Health (37). He pointed out that attacking a religion or writers was insane (43), therefore nobody would believe the enemy (159), who Hubbard said was below the requisite emotional level for truth (169). Indeed, the mere fact that one was being attacked was proof of one's own validity (112).
Hubbard pointed out that his customer's staff had a higher than average IQ (86). In addition the staff was better able to confront complexity (75). In the event that success was still not obtained, management could put "heads on a pike" (79).
Positive images included winning a "legal action" (51) and carrying out a favorable "PR action" (51)(128). In response to negative feedback, staff were to "react casually" (125).
Hubbard viewed the supply of reliable information (134) as an advantage to his groups. That also meant "false data" would need to be stripped (177). False data was "shed in layers" (177) and occasionally a false datum was hard to strip because the person thought the false datum was true (177).
In addition to having their false data removed, staff were to be shielded from personal contact with enemy groups (94). Enemies on home territory were to be stalled and removed (94). As a preventive measure Hubbard advocated counter-espionage (114), and to extend the enemy's removal beyond home territory, security and propaganda measures were to be used (110).
Hubbard's lessons from the enemy (34)
One of Hubbard's main lessons was that public opinion was a force superior to guns (34)(129). To demonstrate how this could be done, he indicated that a population can be ruled by terrorists (34). Hubbard wrote a ruling group: used blackmail on sex and crimes and promised punishment (34), broke down natural affection and understanding (34), used lies and threats to corrupt workers (34), and used provocation to turn employee against employer (34). Referring to this as "subversion," Hubbard said it required messengers, delivery of arms, and collection of monies (34). Under these circumstances, Hubbard said, only the honest would have rights (34). In order to bring this condition about, the proper technology was necessary (34).
A controlling group could win by wearing business suits and being vouched for as doctors (37). Its members would kill enemies by "de-personalizing" them (37). The technology for doing this, Hubbard wrote, was the same as that used by intelligence agencies (37).
The winner would use continuous propaganda attacks (43). The reason for this, Hubbard wrote, was that to defend one must attack (43)(109)(169 - not from enemy)
The only way to defend anything is to ATTACK, and if you ever forget that, then you will lose every battle you are ever engaged in, whether it is in terms of personal conversation, public debate, or a court of law. (169)
The winning tactic must be to attack (43), the winner must have a cause (43) and the enemy abuses had to be real (43). The controlling force must not debate (169) what it was doing, but must show spirit and defiance (43). In the absence of debate, people would join what the unpopular group was attacking (43).
Hubbard occasionally used well-known enemies as examples. For instance, he wrote that Nazis and Stalinists used PR to bring about disrepute of enemies (153)(154), that Hitler was an example of a failure in PR (158), and that the Nazis failed because they did not have good manners (160).
Hubbard also wrote, however, that negative PR was used by the US President and the mental health industry (154). He pointed out that ten times more effort was expended on "black" PR than on good PR (153), and that the abundance of bad news in newspapers was evidence of this (153). "Black" PR included bribing newspapers and lying to Congress (153).
As an example of how not to deal with opinion leaders, Hubbard cited the government, which he said sent their agents after opinion leaders to sway them (158). Hubbard added the category of "anti-opinion leaders," who consisted of dissident people and who had to be removed (158).
Words are redefined as a propaganda technique (by Nazis and Communists) (164). Hubbard re-defined "psychiatry" to mean "anti-social enemy of the people" (164).
Hubbard stated that his public relations officers must use policies on "anti-social personality" (121). The following is a general summary of one policy on this topic.
Anti-social personality (175)
Hubbard outlines his position that a group of people exists that "oppose violently any betterment activity or group." This group perpetuated crime, suppressed civilization and caused financial hardship. For that reason, he wrote, it was important to keep an eye on the government, the police and those who worked in mental health to make sure this group did not gain a foothold in these fields. Included in this minority of "truly dangerous" people were Adolf Hitler and Napolean Bonaparte.
Hubbard took this a step further by saying this group was "inevitably" found to be the cause of businesses failing, of families breaking up and of hardship in general. He reasoned that if only this group could be clearly defined, that others would be able to recognize the danger and thus save themselves "much failure and heartbreak."
This group consisted of individuals, Hubbard wrote, who practiced actions, 12 types in all, which included: spreading bad news, suppressing good news, generalizing, embellishing information, creating false information, making trouble for others, selecting a wrong target, and supporting destructive groups.
In the event that anyone identified themselves with this list of characteristics, Hubbard wrote
However, the list given above consists of things which such a personality cannot detect in himself or herself. This is so true that if you thought you found yourself in one of the above, you most certainly are not anti-social.
The reason this group behaved in the above fashion, Hubbard wrote, was that its members believed that everybody they dealt with were their enemy. Hubbard reported that the members of this group exhibited "no outward signs of insanity. They appear quite rational. They can be very convincing." Weeding out this sort of person from one's own life, Hubbard wrote, would give a person a tremendous sense of relief. In addition,
if society were to recognize this personality type as a sick being as they now isolate people with smallpox, both social and economic recoveries could occur.
If was not fair, according to Hubbard, for this anti-social minority to be "permitted to dominate and injure the lives" of other people. The only problem was that this alleged group would refuse to be helped and "would not respond to treatment if help were attempted."
Hubbard wrote that government was dangerous when it was being used by this anti-social group of people. He gave past examples of the failure to recognize anti-social people as "the resultant collapse of Egypt, Babylon, Rome, Russia or the West."
He wrote that intelligence was not a factor in being anti-social. Neither was ability, importance or ambition. Hubbard wrote that everyone experiences some of these alleged anti-social tendencies, but that a real anti-social person practiced a majority of them regularly. Appearing to balance the situation, he wrote,
Thus one must examine the good with the bad before one can truly label the antisocial or the social.
He then listed characteristics of a social person in terms opposite of those he listed for those of an anti-social person. For instance, as Hubbard had characterrized one who speaks in generalities as an anti-social person, he listed the corresponding characteristics of a social person as one who does not speak in generalities.
3. Processing the data
Data is gathered, evaluated, processed and distributed in conditions of "affluence" and "danger" (3)(106).
In the condition of "affluence" (3)(106), the organization uses data (9) to win support and revitalize society (9)(42) by using similar groups as allies (9)(146)(148). This is done with campaigns (9) both to predict events (9)(63) and to safeguard the organization (10). Hubbard noted that intelligence gain was brought about through familiarity with a given topic (100), and cautioned people not to fight in their own subject area (9)(43)(72).
Campaigns are conducted with programs (9)(134), which could be either offensive or defensive (9). Special groups are in charge of these programs, which have included the special zone department (109), the department of government affairs (109), the department of official affairs (110), and the Guardian (113)(122)(148). Other programs are used to put Scientology in schools (116)(134). There is also a religious program (134), a drug abuse program (134), and an anti-discrimination program (134). Appearances (135) were to be maintained in the performance of these programs.
The Guardian was in charge (148) overall, and decided what to do with information (152). It was made clear to staff that only [the Guardian's] PR professionals could approach groups (144).
On the defensive side, Hubbard indicated that the first sign of an enemy was non-compliance (94). Defensive programs are used to locate enemies (10), to prevent attacks (9) and to permanently handle suppressives (the enemy) (10)(175). Situations in which the enemy had not been permanently handled were regarded as danger conditions (3)(72)(106). In response to the presence of an enemy, "One cuts off enemy communications, funds, connections. He deprives the enemy of political advantages, connections and power. He takes over enemy territory. He raids and harasses. All on a thought plain - press, public opinion, governments, etc." (9) In order to accomplish these actions, intelligence was needed. "Intelligence is therefore that activity which collects data and keeps it adding up so that we know our foes from ours [sic] friends and so that we can act to separate out the sources of trouble in any given situation." (9)
In the context of describing public relations practice, Hubbard wrote:
This HCO Pol[icy] L[e]t[te]r is a rapid coverage of modern PRO work. It is not what we have been doing. It is what PROs do over the world when they are on the job. (121)
Hubbard reassured his staff that in carrying out the work of a modern PRO, any identity as religion would not to interfere with day-to-day activities (123). Rather, public relations was to captivate the public (137) and create an acceptable illusion (147).
PR could be dangerous if used for the wrong purpose (153). The reason for this was that all prior knowledge of PR had been perverted by psychology (153). However, positive PR would interact with negative PR (153). Therefore Hubbard re-wrote PR with his own modifications (153)(155).
Hubbard gave the definition of "public" as generally used by PR (155), that of a type of audience with a common interest. He said these interests could be determined by surveys (155). While PR was hard work, and being charming was secondary (156), good manners were still necessary. Good manners meant making people "feel important." (161). Hubbard defined PR as the go-between for management and publics (157). PR required proper preparation (160), and its end result was favorable popularity (158).
Hubbard noted that "opinion leaders" were the ones in the public that mattered (158). However, opinion leaders were not to be confused the people in charge (158). In the matter of opinion leaders, celebrities were more important than politicians (158). Above all the good will of the opinion leaders was important, not the good opinion of the masses (158).
The "public divisions" of an organization were to capture and control human emotion (162)(167). This was to be done by finding out what the public considered valuable (167). For this, one used surveys (154)(162)(164)(166)(167). Surveys could be regarded as documentation for PR work (154).
Hubbard gave a typical advertisement, which is listed here as a survey results sample. We can give you (168) 1. A Higher IQ to handle your problems. 2. Higher awareness to get a better job. 3. More energy to make more money. 4. Better health to breast Life. 5. Better morale to handle upsets. 6. Less Despair. 7. More Life. 8. More years to Live.
Hubbard cautioned his readers that lies were never to be used in PR (158). The important thing was that survival depended on opinion, and opinion depended on PR (158). Nevertheless he also noted that answers that were too advanced would confuse people (169). Therefore imagination was necessary in telling an "acceptable truth" (154). Furthermore, "imaginative" statements were OK as long as they were not "passed off as truth" (154).
Achieving what the group wants was "positive" PR (154). Positive PR was "good works well publicized" (163). Canceling out the lies of others was "defensive" PR (154). As an example of defensive PR, Hubbard gave his policy of canceling out the lies of psychiatry (154). This defensive practice of canceling out lies, according to Sun Tzu's Art of War, was called the "dead agent" method (154).
PR targeted individuals, not groups (144). The purpose of PR was to formulate and guide public opinion (121)(155). PR was to combine press with legislative action (120). It combined the power of money, force and opinion leaders (158).
In a work he entitled "Black PR," Hubbard explained the connection between PR and intelligence. In PR the source of the information was known. (159). In Intelligence the source of the information is concealed (159). Therefore revealing the enemy's secrets would destroy the enemy's intelligence (159). However the use of "intelligence-like tactics" was necessary to discover who the enemy was (159). These tactics were "a cross between PR and Intelligence." (159). Hubbard wrote that "black PR" was the "wrong way to right a wrong." (159). In this sort of activity, the press was used to create "embarrassing publicity" for opponents (169).
For instance, in the event a Scientologist was ever arrested, Hubbard's advice was to
[c]ause blue flame to dance on the courthouse roof until everybody has apologized profusely for having dared to become so adventurous as to arrest a Scientologist who, as a minister of the church, was going about his regular duties. (169)
"Protest PR" was the right way to right a wrong, but it did not always work (159).
Hubbard noted that accurate information about himself was essential for good press (170). He reminded his journalists that each press release should have one topic (118), and that they should obtain a signed release for success stories (positive PR) (151). He also wrote a section promoting the use of PRO broadsheets ("Freedom" magazine) (119).
Handling Failure (3)
The only time a person's case worsened was when that person had some sort of connection with an enemy. In Hubbard's language this was called a "potential trouble source" (PTS) situation, meaning a person was connected with an anti-social personality, as described above under "Hubbard's contributions" (92)(96). The first indicator of PTS was non-compliance (94). PTS could be caused by "Entheta" (enemy data) (3)(9)(49). In short, SPs (suppressive persons, another term for "anti-social personalities" or enemies) were responsible for any failures (105). To distance himself from failed situations, Hubbard even published a statement saying that he had not founded any of the organizations that had failed (20). His answer to failure was to "knock out incorrect actions" (74).
What to avoid
At various times, Hubbard described situations that were to be avoided. These included: the use of "random technology" (128), dissemination to people who already had solutions (144), discourtesy (134) and public upsets (134). In a letter that stated its purpose was to keep communications lines from being cut, Hubbard also described how to cut communications lines (127), e.g., needless traffic, intermittent traffic or flooding a line with too much information. Distraction and noise (108) was also to be kept to a minimum.
In regards to information, the following was to be avoided: false information (63), misfiled information (65), filing backlogs (66), misspelt information (68) and random reports (128). In particular, the passing on of "bad news" was heavily discouraged (98)(101)(102). See also the section on the "Anti-social personality" in regards to this.
Bad appearances, such as "too much perfume," "body odor" and dirty fingernails were to be avoided (147). Hubbard also was aware that sex could cause problems (80)(81)(82)(103).
Explanations for failure
Hubbard had many explanations for failure, most of them related to either incompetence or being in proximity to an enemy. He went so far as to invent a "new definition of psychosis" (76). If, as he stated, insane people could not comply, then non-compliance was also to be a primary indicator of insanity (76). Hubbard defined insanity as "the determination to destroy" (77). In this regard he wrote that 20% of people are insane (77). On the less alarming side, insane people always got sick or ran away (77).
However, not all problems were caused by insane people. Some people were merely incompetent. For instance "degraded beings" perverted orders (78). They also wanted help (78). Hubbard designated those who joined the organization only for help as "freeloaders" (84), and made a policy that they would be retroactively billed for any "help" they had received when they left the organization. Besides "degraded beings," there were also "robots" (79) who needed orders, but who could only follow orders slowly.
People to avoid
Hubbard pre-defined a number of people as suppressive or potential sources of trouble. These included people who wanted to see if Scientology works (86)(89). Others were those who had a psychiatric history (86)(87), or those who had an "open mind" (86)(89). As far as researchers and the press are concerned, they were also disqualified, as they were "investigating or judging Scientology" (86)(89)(91). Hubbard specifically mentioned newspaper reporters.
People on either side of the law were avoided in so far as they were criminals (89)(90), or had failed a security check because of attempt to procure evidence (88) for an outside agency. A simple connection with people of known antagonism to Scientology (89)(95) could render a person off-limits (89). The same went for any who had ever considered suing Scientology (89).
Since these people were exposed to continuous concepts of destructiveness (85)(91), sometimes they could not be kept alive (92). The controversial policies of "Fair Game" and of "Disconnection" apply in this area (93)(97).
Responding to attacks
In response to figurative attacks, Hubbard wrote about a "PR weapon" that could be successfully used. This "weapon" was the statement "They are afraid of us" (14)(18)(112). Other propaganda (9) techniques applied, such as notions that: the enemy's attacks are a good recommendation (21), the enemy's attacks result in our victory (24), evil men sense their own destruction (14), governments want their own demise (43), and the enemy's own documentation proves him wrong (25)(47).
In describing the enemy, it was important to identify the enemy with lies (20) dishonesty (9), irresponsibility and hostility (40). The enemy lied to the press (36) and conducted press attacks (37)(116). The enemy was incompetent (24)(32)(47). Evidence of this incompetence was that enemy relied on the press for information (47), the enemy's evidence was inconclusive (25), and the enemy, or attackers, put things out of context (32).
Hubbard stressed that the enemy was suppressive, and, according to his own definitions, suppressive people are insane (76). Therefore it would be necessary to accumulate documented, scandalous data about the enemy (9). This was done through a technique Hubbard called "dead agenting" (71).
If people or groups invalidated or rejected Scientology (31), they were the enemy. The proper response was to investigate loudly (112). Security checks were to be used to find the enemy's crimes (176). The enemy was to be put on trial (27) and found guilty of hidden crimes (112)(169). These sort of crimes would be murder, assault, destruction, violence and sex (9) (27) (28)(39), including child molestation (26).
In any case, it was the enemy that attacked "wrong targets" (9). It was this sort of action that impeded human liberty (9), broke up families (38) and prevented people from getting real help (38). Driving people insane (38) was a method of eliminating rivals (50). The enemy collected money from rich people (39) and was backed by vested interests (26)(31)(43).
The enemy used media control (50), "black" (negative) PR (50) and false promises (50). The enemy did not use factual data (159) and did not tell the truth (159). In short, the enemy falsely publicized bad works (163).
The enemy was comparable to Hitler (16), used religious persecution (17), attacked Hubbard's work (14)(38), was part of a conspiracy (25)(38) and ran a monopoly (25)(50). The enemy operated a modern-day form of slavery (20).
Moreover, the enemy included communists (36), ran empires (25) and attempted to undermine and destroy the West (37) by using bribery, terrorism and propaganda (43).
Finally, the enemy used "pain-drug hypnosis" (44). "Pain-drug hypnosis" was explained in the "Brainwashing Manual," which Hubbard distributed in the 1950s. Hubbard said the "Brainwashing Manual" (33)(170)(171)(172) would explain the bad publicity he was getting.
The enemy had "total control of governments, press, radio, TV and all standard PRO media, plus financing in terms of billions" (146). The enemy used PRO-intelligence (9). The enemy could be further broken down into categories. Some of these included: former Scientologists: governments, the media, medicine and psychiatry.
Former Scientologists (6)
"Rock Slammers" (people who recorded a certain reaction on a Scientology electronic device) (16) were to consider themselves to be enemies. These could also include practicing Scientologists.
To handle the government, Hubbard advocated bringing about a pro-Scientology government (110).
Description of government
After his organizations were raided by federal agencies, Hubbard wrote that the US was carrying out a smear campaign (16)(17), an armed raid on a church (16), that it had seized religious books (16)(17) and that it protected criminals (18).
As evidence that government was insane, Hubbard wrote that "Welfarism" was psychotic (18) and that the "Welfare Dept." promoted victims (18).
Hubbard wrote there was no difference between US and Russia in their use of secret police (158), and that the British, US, Germans and Russians all used black PR (intelligence) (159). In this regard, he gave recommendations on Richard Nixon (173).
The government enemy used "secret police" (18)(176). It was against honesty (18), it advocated force without principle (18), a "first strike" mentality (19) and it advocated total destruction (19). Government used the politics of bureaucracy (20) and wanted total power for the state (20).
The government followed the orders of psychiatrists (40)(42) and advocated Russian brainwashing (14)(19). It was weak and corrupt (40) and it obliterated minorities (45). The government burned books and was turning fascist (45). The government fascists, in turn, were being instigated by the communists (45). As the government had been suborned by health monopolies (50), it attempted to legalize inhuman brutality (46) and thought that ideas could be crushed by force (45).
Handling the media
Hubbard pointed out that the fear newspapers had of being sued (24)(25) could be used to obtain press compliance (110). The press could also be controlled by controlling the publisher (144). In any case, newspaper reporters had to be investigated (47) and the stories they wrote had to be answered (25). As a preventive measures, Hubbard recommended hiring sales people and preparing files to which the press could be referred (170).
The positive aspects of media were that they covered the convictions of foes (9), and legislation could be obtained through press campaigns (28). "Lurid press" (27) was a force to be reckoned with. Hubbard noted that the United Church of Christ used a grass roots group to take over WLBT-TV (50).
Nevertheless, "word of mouth" was better than the media (116)(136)(141)(143)(146). Personal contact was recommended for recruitment (143) and for "casualty contacts" (141). Both of these were similar in making the person's feeling of failure a topic of discussion.
Description of media
Hubbard wrote that TV reported negatively on Scientology (51), that news releases resulted in vilification (250 and that bad press begets more bad press (20). Nevertheless, the press was irrelevant to Scientology (20)(38).
Bad press could be explained by saying that the media were not familiar with topic at hand (25), and that they had taken things out of context (32). Thus, the press not only misrepresented programs (32), but it was a tool of government (40).
There was no doubt that the press attacked Hubbard's work (14)(33). Part of the reason for that could be that reporters had hidden crimes (116)(176). In order to understand reporters, Hubbard's staff had to realize that press stories had to contain harm, sex, invalidation, money, controversy (116). The press wrote their stories before they did any interviews (169) and their stories contained false data (177)
The media were serving special interests (144)(154) and were guided by PRs (154). In spite of this, the media still ignored opinion leaders (158). Instead, the newspapers cited each other as opinion leaders (158).
Hubbard also noted that the bad press first started after he wrote a book to help people (25).
With regards to medicine, Hubbard wrote that the field of medicine was afraid of drugless healing (20). He also wrote that medicine was not needed for a cure (25).
In presumed response to psychiatry, Hubbard wrote that psychiatry used violent and harmful treatments (14), electric shock machines (16)(22) and participated in sex orgies (28). His policy was to have the media depict psychiatric treatment as "psychiatric bloodsports" (30) or "political treatment" (46). Hubbard wrote that psychiatry used pain association for control (48) and that it was associated with insane people (87). Psychiatry advocated drugs (48) and used destructive technology (48)
4. Points of Contact
The following are some points of contact mentioned in the press and public relations policies examined:
a. Governments (6)(9)
(14)(19) England (16)
South Africa (16)
United Kingdom (27)
US (17) John F. Kennedy (17)
Franklin D. Roosevelt (18)
tax agencies (6)(73)
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (16)(21)(123)
immigration agencies (6)(73)
Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) (18)
b. Medical (6)(73)
American Medical Association (AMA) (14)
American Psychiatric Association (25)
World Federation of Mental Health (36)(38)(41)(48)
drug manufacturers (20)
psychiatry (6) (14)
c. Media (6)(9)(73)
Life magazine (38)
professional do-gooders (18)(38)
Better Business Bureau (25)
groups as mutual self-help societies (144)
finance agencies (9)
Roman Catholics (14)(17)(21)
Indian whirling dervishes (14)
e. The enemy (9)
f. General publics (130)(133)
those who have bought something from an organization (13)
those who have not bought something from an organization (13)
g. The organization
emergency headquarters in case of atomic war (98)
The Guardian (148)